Lithium-ion battery benefits and drawbacks (Advantages & Disadvantages)
Batteries made on lithium-ion polymer have both benefits and downsides. There are both pros and drawbacks to consider when considering the adoption of Lithium Ion, Li-Ion technology.
What is a Lithium-ion (Li-Ion) battery?
A lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery is a high-performance battery that employs lithium ions as a significant component of its electrochemistry. Lithium atoms in the anode are ionized and separated from their electrons during a discharge cycle.
In order to return to a neutral state, the lithium ions must travel from the anode to the cathode, where they join with their electrons and recombine. A micro-permeable separator allows the lithium ions to pass between the anode and cathode.
With its compact size (third only to hydrogen and helium), lithium-ion batteries are capable of a high voltage and charge storage capacity per unit mass or volume.
A variety of materials can be used as electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. A frequent cathode and anode material combination in portable electronic devices, such as mobile phones and laptops, is lithium cobalt oxide (LCO). There are a few other cathode materials, including lithium manganese oxide (used in hybrid electric and electric vehicles) and lithium iron phosphate. Ether, a family of organic chemicals, is commonly used as an electrolyte in lithium-ion batteries.
Benefits of Lithium-ion battery (Advantages)
Lithium-ion batteries, sometimes known as Li-ion batteries, have seen an increase in popularity in recent years. In comparison to other battery technologies, such as nickel-metal hydride, lead-acid batteries, and of course nickel-cadmium batteries, they provide certain significant advantages and enhancements. Like all other technologies, lithium-ion batteries have their pluses and minuses.
The limits and drawbacks of li-ion battery technology must be understood in order to take full advantage of its benefits. They can then be employed in a way that best utilizes their unique abilities.
The limitations of lithium-ion battery technology are being addressed, and the overall technology is being improved, as the technology advances rapidly.
The characteristics of lithium-ion batteries and cells mean that they are more suited for some uses than others. They have a greater voltage and can cost more than other battery kinds, but they deliver higher charge levels. In certain circumstances, this makes them more suited to electrical circuit designs than other battery technologies, while in other cases, it may make them less suitable.
Battery management systems, or electronics, can also be found on newer lithium-ion batteries. That way, you’ll get the greatest performance out of your battery and keep it from overheating.
Using a Li-ion battery cell has several advantages. As a result, technology is being employed more and more in a wide range of different contexts and industries. Small electronic gadgets, cellphones, computers, cars, and a wide range of other applications are all included in this category.
One must weigh the benefits of a lithium-ion battery over a lead-acid or nickel-metal hydride battery (NiMH battery) while making such a decision.
There is a growing number of uses for Li-ion batteries because of their benefits, and as a result, a large amount of development is being invested in them.
The following are some benefits of using a li-ion battery:
Maintenance is minimal
One big advantage of lithium-ion batteries is that they don’t need to be maintained.
To avoid the memory effect, Ni-Cad batteries needed to be discharged on a regular basis. Because lithium-ion batteries and cells are not affected by this. This method, as well as related ones, is not necessary.
Lead-acid batteries, on the other hand, need regular top-ups of the battery acid.
Lithium-ion batteries, on the other hand, have the benefit of not requiring any kind of ongoing care.
Low mass-to-energy ratio
The high energy density of lithium-ion battery technology is one of its main advantages. Batteries with a significantly greater energy density are constantly needed for electronic devices like mobile phones that need to run for longer periods of time while still using a lot of power.
When it comes to smartphones, for example, NiMH batteries aren’t powerful enough. It’s unlikely that a smartphone’s battery would survive as long if it were powered by Nickel Metal Hydride technology, given the device’s current size restrictions.
In addition, there are power uses, from power tools to electric cars. Lithium-ion batteries have a unique advantage in that their power density is substantially higher. Electric cars also require a high-energy-density battery.
Priming is not necessary
Upon receiving their first charge, certain rechargeable batteries require priming. One benefit of lithium-ion batteries is that there is no need for this because they are already functioning and ready to go when they are delivered.
Voltage in the cell
In terms of voltage, a single lithium-ion cell generates roughly 3.6 volts. There are several advantages to doing so. Because the voltage of each lithium-ion cell is higher than that of conventional nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and even normal alkaline cells (about 1.5 volts) and lead-acid (approximately 2 volts), many battery applications require fewer lithium-ion cells. A single cell is sufficient for smartphones, making power management easier.
The self-discharge rate of many rechargeable batteries is a problem. Unlike other rechargeable batteries like Ni-Cad and NiMH, the self-discharge rate of lithium-ion cells is far lower. Once you’ve been charged, it normally drops to 1% or 2% a month after the first four hours. This is common.
There is a wide range of choices
A variety of lithium-ion battery options are available. Lithium-ion batteries have the benefit of being able to employ the proper technology for the right application. Lithium-ion batteries with high current densities are well-suited for use in consumer electronic devices like smartphones and tablets. Those with higher current capabilities are more suited to power tools and electric cars.
Lithium-ion batteries and cells may provide additional advantages in some applications. It is possible to use a single cell for numerous applications with little over 3 volts of power. In most cases, a single cell is all that’s needed for a phone.
A lithium-ion battery or cell may be used in electronic circuit design or an electric application if other factors dictate its use.
There are various uses for lithium-ion cells and batteries now, from small, low-power electronic designs to much bigger and higher current ones like electric car batteries or batteries for PV systems, i.e. solar panel systems, thanks to their benefits.
Lithium-ion batteries are expected to play a key role in meeting the growing need for battery power in mobile systems.
They’re no longer being utilized because of their environmental effect, and nickel-metal hydride batteries don’t have enough charge for many uses.
The drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries (Disadvantages)
As with any new technology, there are certain drawbacks that must be weighed against the positives. Lithium-ion batteries and cells have various downsides, much like any other technology.
Despite the fact that lithium-ion battery technology has several drawbacks, they may be reduced or even overcome in order to achieve exceptional performance.
Once flaws in an electronic design or electrical system are identified, it is possible to incorporate workarounds to lessen their negative impact.
There are a number of drawbacks to li-ion batteries.
Expenses and Development of New Technology
It is possible that lithium-ion batteries are still regarded as an immature technology by some, despite the fact that they have been widely accessible for many years. This might be a drawback due to the fact that technology changes throughout time. New lithium-ion technology is always being created, which might be a benefit because better solutions are constantly being produced.
The expense of lithium-ion batteries is a big drawback. The manufacturing cost of these batteries is typically 40 percent higher than that of nickel-cadmium cells. When contemplating their usage in mass-produced consumer goods, this is a crucial consideration.
Lithium-ion batteries have the drawback of degrading over time, which makes them unsuitable for use in consumer gadgets. Not only is this time- or calendar-dependent, but it is also influenced by the battery’s charge-discharge cycle count.
Typically, a battery’s capacity is limited to 500 to 1000 charge/discharge cycles. Lithium-ion technology has led to an increase in this number, however, this might be a problem if the batteries are incorporated into the equipment.
In either case, lithium-ion batteries degrade with time. Despite the fact that the capacity has been reduced, there is also a time-related component.
LCO batteries and cells should be stored at 40% to 50% charge and in a cold, dry location while not in use, according to industry standards. Keeping it under these circumstances will extend its lifespan.
The disadvantage of lithium-ion batteries has recently been brought to light. As a result, several airlines have restrictions on the number of lithium-ion batteries they may carry.
Because of the current state of aviation security, lithium-ion batteries must frequently be transported in carry-on luggage for flying travelers. There may be a limit on the number of batteries. Protective coverings, etc., are required for any lithium-ion batteries transported separately to prevent short circuits. Where big lithium-ion batteries, such as those used in huge power banks, are concerned.
Before taking to the skies, make sure you can bring a substantial power bank with you. Unfortunately, the instructions are not always very clear.
A mechanism for safeguarding and managing batteries is necessary
Batteries made of lithium-ion are less durable than those made of more traditional rechargeable materials like nickel-cadmium or lithium-metal hydride. They must be safeguarded against being overcharged and over-discharged. Additionally, the current must be kept within safe limits. As a result, one of the drawbacks of lithium-ion batteries is the necessity of including protective circuitry to keep them within their acceptable functioning limits.
Since contemporary integrated circuit technology makes this possible, the battery or equipment itself, if the battery isn’t removable, can incorporate it. Li-ion batteries may be utilized without the need for any specific training thanks to the incorporation of the battery management circuitry. If you leave them plugged in, they’ll keep charging until the battery is full.
Many elements of battery functioning are monitored by the battery management system that is incorporated into lithium-ion batteries. During charging, each cell’s peak voltage is regulated by a safety circuit to avoid damaging the cells. One connection to the battery means they are usually charged in series, and because various cells require varying degrees of charge, one cell may experience a voltage greater than what is required.
To avoid dangerously low cell voltages on discharge, battery management or safety circuitry is employed. Similarly, one cell on the battery may be able to store less charge than the others, causing it to run out of power earlier than the rest of the battery.
Additionally, the battery management system monitors cell temperatures to minimize overheating. Most battery packs have a maximum charge and discharge current of between 1°C and 2°C. However, some do become a tad heated while charging at high speeds.